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page_tables.c

/*P:700 The pagetable code, on the other hand, still shows the scars of
 * previous encounters.  It's functional, and as neat as it can be in the
 * circumstances, but be wary, for these things are subtle and break easily.
 * The Guest provides a virtual to physical mapping, but we can neither trust
 * it nor use it: we verify and convert it here to point the hardware to the
 * actual Guest pages when running the Guest. :*/

/* Copyright (C) Rusty Russell IBM Corporation 2006.
 * GPL v2 and any later version */
#include <linux/mm.h>
#include <linux/types.h>
#include <linux/spinlock.h>
#include <linux/random.h>
#include <linux/percpu.h>
#include <asm/tlbflush.h>
#include <asm/uaccess.h>
#include "lg.h"

/*M:008 We hold reference to pages, which prevents them from being swapped.
 * It'd be nice to have a callback in the "struct mm_struct" when Linux wants
 * to swap out.  If we had this, and a shrinker callback to trim PTE pages, we
 * could probably consider launching Guests as non-root. :*/

/*H:300
 * The Page Table Code
 *
 * We use two-level page tables for the Guest.  If you're not entirely
 * comfortable with virtual addresses, physical addresses and page tables then
 * I recommend you review arch/x86/lguest/boot.c's "Page Table Handling" (with
 * diagrams!).
 *
 * The Guest keeps page tables, but we maintain the actual ones here: these are
 * called "shadow" page tables.  Which is a very Guest-centric name: these are
 * the real page tables the CPU uses, although we keep them up to date to
 * reflect the Guest's.  (See what I mean about weird naming?  Since when do
 * shadows reflect anything?)
 *
 * Anyway, this is the most complicated part of the Host code.  There are seven
 * parts to this:
 *  (i) Looking up a page table entry when the Guest faults,
 *  (ii) Making sure the Guest stack is mapped,
 *  (iii) Setting up a page table entry when the Guest tells us one has changed,
 *  (iv) Switching page tables,
 *  (v) Flushing (throwing away) page tables,
 *  (vi) Mapping the Switcher when the Guest is about to run,
 *  (vii) Setting up the page tables initially.
 :*/


/* 1024 entries in a page table page maps 1024 pages: 4MB.  The Switcher is
 * conveniently placed at the top 4MB, so it uses a separate, complete PTE
 * page.  */
#define SWITCHER_PGD_INDEX (PTRS_PER_PGD - 1)

/* We actually need a separate PTE page for each CPU.  Remember that after the
 * Switcher code itself comes two pages for each CPU, and we don't want this
 * CPU's guest to see the pages of any other CPU. */
static DEFINE_PER_CPU(pte_t *, switcher_pte_pages);
#define switcher_pte_page(cpu) per_cpu(switcher_pte_pages, cpu)

/*H:320 The page table code is curly enough to need helper functions to keep it
 * clear and clean.
 *
 * There are two functions which return pointers to the shadow (aka "real")
 * page tables.
 *
 * spgd_addr() takes the virtual address and returns a pointer to the top-level
 * page directory entry (PGD) for that address.  Since we keep track of several
 * page tables, the "i" argument tells us which one we're interested in (it's
 * usually the current one). */
static pgd_t *spgd_addr(struct lguest *lg, u32 i, unsigned long vaddr)
{
      unsigned int index = pgd_index(vaddr);

      /* We kill any Guest trying to touch the Switcher addresses. */
      if (index >= SWITCHER_PGD_INDEX) {
            kill_guest(lg, "attempt to access switcher pages");
            index = 0;
      }
      /* Return a pointer index'th pgd entry for the i'th page table. */
      return &lg->pgdirs[i].pgdir[index];
}

/* This routine then takes the page directory entry returned above, which
 * contains the address of the page table entry (PTE) page.  It then returns a
 * pointer to the PTE entry for the given address. */
static pte_t *spte_addr(struct lguest *lg, pgd_t spgd, unsigned long vaddr)
{
      pte_t *page = __va(pgd_pfn(spgd) << PAGE_SHIFT);
      /* You should never call this if the PGD entry wasn't valid */
      BUG_ON(!(pgd_flags(spgd) & _PAGE_PRESENT));
      return &page[(vaddr >> PAGE_SHIFT) % PTRS_PER_PTE];
}

/* These two functions just like the above two, except they access the Guest
 * page tables.  Hence they return a Guest address. */
static unsigned long gpgd_addr(struct lguest *lg, unsigned long vaddr)
{
      unsigned int index = vaddr >> (PGDIR_SHIFT);
      return lg->pgdirs[lg->pgdidx].gpgdir + index * sizeof(pgd_t);
}

static unsigned long gpte_addr(struct lguest *lg,
                         pgd_t gpgd, unsigned long vaddr)
{
      unsigned long gpage = pgd_pfn(gpgd) << PAGE_SHIFT;
      BUG_ON(!(pgd_flags(gpgd) & _PAGE_PRESENT));
      return gpage + ((vaddr>>PAGE_SHIFT) % PTRS_PER_PTE) * sizeof(pte_t);
}

/*H:350 This routine takes a page number given by the Guest and converts it to
 * an actual, physical page number.  It can fail for several reasons: the
 * virtual address might not be mapped by the Launcher, the write flag is set
 * and the page is read-only, or the write flag was set and the page was
 * shared so had to be copied, but we ran out of memory.
 *
 * This holds a reference to the page, so release_pte() is careful to
 * put that back. */
static unsigned long get_pfn(unsigned long virtpfn, int write)
{
      struct page *page;
      /* This value indicates failure. */
      unsigned long ret = -1UL;

      /* get_user_pages() is a complex interface: it gets the "struct
       * vm_area_struct" and "struct page" assocated with a range of pages.
       * It also needs the task's mmap_sem held, and is not very quick.
       * It returns the number of pages it got. */
      down_read(&current->mm->mmap_sem);
      if (get_user_pages(current, current->mm, virtpfn << PAGE_SHIFT,
                     1, write, 1, &page, NULL) == 1)
            ret = page_to_pfn(page);
      up_read(&current->mm->mmap_sem);
      return ret;
}

/*H:340 Converting a Guest page table entry to a shadow (ie. real) page table
 * entry can be a little tricky.  The flags are (almost) the same, but the
 * Guest PTE contains a virtual page number: the CPU needs the real page
 * number. */
static pte_t gpte_to_spte(struct lguest *lg, pte_t gpte, int write)
{
      unsigned long pfn, base, flags;

      /* The Guest sets the global flag, because it thinks that it is using
       * PGE.  We only told it to use PGE so it would tell us whether it was
       * flushing a kernel mapping or a userspace mapping.  We don't actually
       * use the global bit, so throw it away. */
      flags = (pte_flags(gpte) & ~_PAGE_GLOBAL);

      /* The Guest's pages are offset inside the Launcher. */
      base = (unsigned long)lg->mem_base / PAGE_SIZE;

      /* We need a temporary "unsigned long" variable to hold the answer from
       * get_pfn(), because it returns 0xFFFFFFFF on failure, which wouldn't
       * fit in spte.pfn.  get_pfn() finds the real physical number of the
       * page, given the virtual number. */
      pfn = get_pfn(base + pte_pfn(gpte), write);
      if (pfn == -1UL) {
            kill_guest(lg, "failed to get page %lu", pte_pfn(gpte));
            /* When we destroy the Guest, we'll go through the shadow page
             * tables and release_pte() them.  Make sure we don't think
             * this one is valid! */
            flags = 0;
      }
      /* Now we assemble our shadow PTE from the page number and flags. */
      return pfn_pte(pfn, __pgprot(flags));
}

/*H:460 And to complete the chain, release_pte() looks like this: */
static void release_pte(pte_t pte)
{
      /* Remember that get_user_pages() took a reference to the page, in
       * get_pfn()?  We have to put it back now. */
      if (pte_flags(pte) & _PAGE_PRESENT)
            put_page(pfn_to_page(pte_pfn(pte)));
}
/*:*/

static void check_gpte(struct lguest *lg, pte_t gpte)
{
      if ((pte_flags(gpte) & (_PAGE_PWT|_PAGE_PSE))
          || pte_pfn(gpte) >= lg->pfn_limit)
            kill_guest(lg, "bad page table entry");
}

static void check_gpgd(struct lguest *lg, pgd_t gpgd)
{
      if ((pgd_flags(gpgd) & ~_PAGE_TABLE) || pgd_pfn(gpgd) >= lg->pfn_limit)
            kill_guest(lg, "bad page directory entry");
}

/*H:330
 * (i) Looking up a page table entry when the Guest faults.
 *
 * We saw this call in run_guest(): when we see a page fault in the Guest, we
 * come here.  That's because we only set up the shadow page tables lazily as
 * they're needed, so we get page faults all the time and quietly fix them up
 * and return to the Guest without it knowing.
 *
 * If we fixed up the fault (ie. we mapped the address), this routine returns
 * true.  Otherwise, it was a real fault and we need to tell the Guest. */
int demand_page(struct lguest *lg, unsigned long vaddr, int errcode)
{
      pgd_t gpgd;
      pgd_t *spgd;
      unsigned long gpte_ptr;
      pte_t gpte;
      pte_t *spte;

      /* First step: get the top-level Guest page table entry. */
      gpgd = lgread(lg, gpgd_addr(lg, vaddr), pgd_t);
      /* Toplevel not present?  We can't map it in. */
      if (!(pgd_flags(gpgd) & _PAGE_PRESENT))
            return 0;

      /* Now look at the matching shadow entry. */
      spgd = spgd_addr(lg, lg->pgdidx, vaddr);
      if (!(pgd_flags(*spgd) & _PAGE_PRESENT)) {
            /* No shadow entry: allocate a new shadow PTE page. */
            unsigned long ptepage = get_zeroed_page(GFP_KERNEL);
            /* This is not really the Guest's fault, but killing it is
             * simple for this corner case. */
            if (!ptepage) {
                  kill_guest(lg, "out of memory allocating pte page");
                  return 0;
            }
            /* We check that the Guest pgd is OK. */
            check_gpgd(lg, gpgd);
            /* And we copy the flags to the shadow PGD entry.  The page
             * number in the shadow PGD is the page we just allocated. */
            *spgd = __pgd(__pa(ptepage) | pgd_flags(gpgd));
      }

      /* OK, now we look at the lower level in the Guest page table: keep its
       * address, because we might update it later. */
      gpte_ptr = gpte_addr(lg, gpgd, vaddr);
      gpte = lgread(lg, gpte_ptr, pte_t);

      /* If this page isn't in the Guest page tables, we can't page it in. */
      if (!(pte_flags(gpte) & _PAGE_PRESENT))
            return 0;

      /* Check they're not trying to write to a page the Guest wants
       * read-only (bit 2 of errcode == write). */
      if ((errcode & 2) && !(pte_flags(gpte) & _PAGE_RW))
            return 0;

      /* User access to a kernel-only page? (bit 3 == user access) */
      if ((errcode & 4) && !(pte_flags(gpte) & _PAGE_USER))
            return 0;

      /* Check that the Guest PTE flags are OK, and the page number is below
       * the pfn_limit (ie. not mapping the Launcher binary). */
      check_gpte(lg, gpte);

      /* Add the _PAGE_ACCESSED and (for a write) _PAGE_DIRTY flag */
      gpte = pte_mkyoung(gpte);
      if (errcode & 2)
            gpte = pte_mkdirty(gpte);

      /* Get the pointer to the shadow PTE entry we're going to set. */
      spte = spte_addr(lg, *spgd, vaddr);
      /* If there was a valid shadow PTE entry here before, we release it.
       * This can happen with a write to a previously read-only entry. */
      release_pte(*spte);

      /* If this is a write, we insist that the Guest page is writable (the
       * final arg to gpte_to_spte()). */
      if (pte_dirty(gpte))
            *spte = gpte_to_spte(lg, gpte, 1);
      else
            /* If this is a read, don't set the "writable" bit in the page
             * table entry, even if the Guest says it's writable.  That way
             * we will come back here when a write does actually occur, so
             * we can update the Guest's _PAGE_DIRTY flag. */
            *spte = gpte_to_spte(lg, pte_wrprotect(gpte), 0);

      /* Finally, we write the Guest PTE entry back: we've set the
       * _PAGE_ACCESSED and maybe the _PAGE_DIRTY flags. */
      lgwrite(lg, gpte_ptr, pte_t, gpte);

      /* The fault is fixed, the page table is populated, the mapping
       * manipulated, the result returned and the code complete.  A small
       * delay and a trace of alliteration are the only indications the Guest
       * has that a page fault occurred at all. */
      return 1;
}

/*H:360
 * (ii) Making sure the Guest stack is mapped.
 *
 * Remember that direct traps into the Guest need a mapped Guest kernel stack.
 * pin_stack_pages() calls us here: we could simply call demand_page(), but as
 * we've seen that logic is quite long, and usually the stack pages are already
 * mapped, so it's overkill.
 *
 * This is a quick version which answers the question: is this virtual address
 * mapped by the shadow page tables, and is it writable? */
static int page_writable(struct lguest *lg, unsigned long vaddr)
{
      pgd_t *spgd;
      unsigned long flags;

      /* Look at the current top level entry: is it present? */
      spgd = spgd_addr(lg, lg->pgdidx, vaddr);
      if (!(pgd_flags(*spgd) & _PAGE_PRESENT))
            return 0;

      /* Check the flags on the pte entry itself: it must be present and
       * writable. */
      flags = pte_flags(*(spte_addr(lg, *spgd, vaddr)));

      return (flags & (_PAGE_PRESENT|_PAGE_RW)) == (_PAGE_PRESENT|_PAGE_RW);
}

/* So, when pin_stack_pages() asks us to pin a page, we check if it's already
 * in the page tables, and if not, we call demand_page() with error code 2
 * (meaning "write"). */
void pin_page(struct lguest *lg, unsigned long vaddr)
{
      if (!page_writable(lg, vaddr) && !demand_page(lg, vaddr, 2))
            kill_guest(lg, "bad stack page %#lx", vaddr);
}

/*H:450 If we chase down the release_pgd() code, it looks like this: */
static void release_pgd(struct lguest *lg, pgd_t *spgd)
{
      /* If the entry's not present, there's nothing to release. */
      if (pgd_flags(*spgd) & _PAGE_PRESENT) {
            unsigned int i;
            /* Converting the pfn to find the actual PTE page is easy: turn
             * the page number into a physical address, then convert to a
             * virtual address (easy for kernel pages like this one). */
            pte_t *ptepage = __va(pgd_pfn(*spgd) << PAGE_SHIFT);
            /* For each entry in the page, we might need to release it. */
            for (i = 0; i < PTRS_PER_PTE; i++)
                  release_pte(ptepage[i]);
            /* Now we can free the page of PTEs */
            free_page((long)ptepage);
            /* And zero out the PGD entry so we never release it twice. */
            *spgd = __pgd(0);
      }
}

/*H:445 We saw flush_user_mappings() twice: once from the flush_user_mappings()
 * hypercall and once in new_pgdir() when we re-used a top-level pgdir page.
 * It simply releases every PTE page from 0 up to the Guest's kernel address. */
static void flush_user_mappings(struct lguest *lg, int idx)
{
      unsigned int i;
      /* Release every pgd entry up to the kernel's address. */
      for (i = 0; i < pgd_index(lg->kernel_address); i++)
            release_pgd(lg, lg->pgdirs[idx].pgdir + i);
}

/*H:440 (v) Flushing (throwing away) page tables,
 *
 * The Guest has a hypercall to throw away the page tables: it's used when a
 * large number of mappings have been changed. */
void guest_pagetable_flush_user(struct lguest *lg)
{
      /* Drop the userspace part of the current page table. */
      flush_user_mappings(lg, lg->pgdidx);
}
/*:*/

/* We walk down the guest page tables to get a guest-physical address */
unsigned long guest_pa(struct lguest *lg, unsigned long vaddr)
{
      pgd_t gpgd;
      pte_t gpte;

      /* First step: get the top-level Guest page table entry. */
      gpgd = lgread(lg, gpgd_addr(lg, vaddr), pgd_t);
      /* Toplevel not present?  We can't map it in. */
      if (!(pgd_flags(gpgd) & _PAGE_PRESENT))
            kill_guest(lg, "Bad address %#lx", vaddr);

      gpte = lgread(lg, gpte_addr(lg, gpgd, vaddr), pte_t);
      if (!(pte_flags(gpte) & _PAGE_PRESENT))
            kill_guest(lg, "Bad address %#lx", vaddr);

      return pte_pfn(gpte) * PAGE_SIZE | (vaddr & ~PAGE_MASK);
}

/* We keep several page tables.  This is a simple routine to find the page
 * table (if any) corresponding to this top-level address the Guest has given
 * us. */
static unsigned int find_pgdir(struct lguest *lg, unsigned long pgtable)
{
      unsigned int i;
      for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(lg->pgdirs); i++)
            if (lg->pgdirs[i].gpgdir == pgtable)
                  break;
      return i;
}

/*H:435 And this is us, creating the new page directory.  If we really do
 * allocate a new one (and so the kernel parts are not there), we set
 * blank_pgdir. */
static unsigned int new_pgdir(struct lguest *lg,
                        unsigned long gpgdir,
                        int *blank_pgdir)
{
      unsigned int next;

      /* We pick one entry at random to throw out.  Choosing the Least
       * Recently Used might be better, but this is easy. */
      next = random32() % ARRAY_SIZE(lg->pgdirs);
      /* If it's never been allocated at all before, try now. */
      if (!lg->pgdirs[next].pgdir) {
            lg->pgdirs[next].pgdir = (pgd_t *)get_zeroed_page(GFP_KERNEL);
            /* If the allocation fails, just keep using the one we have */
            if (!lg->pgdirs[next].pgdir)
                  next = lg->pgdidx;
            else
                  /* This is a blank page, so there are no kernel
                   * mappings: caller must map the stack! */
                  *blank_pgdir = 1;
      }
      /* Record which Guest toplevel this shadows. */
      lg->pgdirs[next].gpgdir = gpgdir;
      /* Release all the non-kernel mappings. */
      flush_user_mappings(lg, next);

      return next;
}

/*H:430 (iv) Switching page tables
 *
 * Now we've seen all the page table setting and manipulation, let's see what
 * what happens when the Guest changes page tables (ie. changes the top-level
 * pgdir).  This occurs on almost every context switch. */
void guest_new_pagetable(struct lguest *lg, unsigned long pgtable)
{
      int newpgdir, repin = 0;

      /* Look to see if we have this one already. */
      newpgdir = find_pgdir(lg, pgtable);
      /* If not, we allocate or mug an existing one: if it's a fresh one,
       * repin gets set to 1. */
      if (newpgdir == ARRAY_SIZE(lg->pgdirs))
            newpgdir = new_pgdir(lg, pgtable, &repin);
      /* Change the current pgd index to the new one. */
      lg->pgdidx = newpgdir;
      /* If it was completely blank, we map in the Guest kernel stack */
      if (repin)
            pin_stack_pages(lg);
}

/*H:470 Finally, a routine which throws away everything: all PGD entries in all
 * the shadow page tables, including the Guest's kernel mappings.  This is used
 * when we destroy the Guest. */
static void release_all_pagetables(struct lguest *lg)
{
      unsigned int i, j;

      /* Every shadow pagetable this Guest has */
      for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(lg->pgdirs); i++)
            if (lg->pgdirs[i].pgdir)
                  /* Every PGD entry except the Switcher at the top */
                  for (j = 0; j < SWITCHER_PGD_INDEX; j++)
                        release_pgd(lg, lg->pgdirs[i].pgdir + j);
}

/* We also throw away everything when a Guest tells us it's changed a kernel
 * mapping.  Since kernel mappings are in every page table, it's easiest to
 * throw them all away.  This traps the Guest in amber for a while as
 * everything faults back in, but it's rare. */
void guest_pagetable_clear_all(struct lguest *lg)
{
      release_all_pagetables(lg);
      /* We need the Guest kernel stack mapped again. */
      pin_stack_pages(lg);
}
/*:*/
/*M:009 Since we throw away all mappings when a kernel mapping changes, our
 * performance sucks for guests using highmem.  In fact, a guest with
 * PAGE_OFFSET 0xc0000000 (the default) and more than about 700MB of RAM is
 * usually slower than a Guest with less memory.
 *
 * This, of course, cannot be fixed.  It would take some kind of... well, I
 * don't know, but the term "puissant code-fu" comes to mind. :*/

/*H:420 This is the routine which actually sets the page table entry for then
 * "idx"'th shadow page table.
 *
 * Normally, we can just throw out the old entry and replace it with 0: if they
 * use it demand_page() will put the new entry in.  We need to do this anyway:
 * The Guest expects _PAGE_ACCESSED to be set on its PTE the first time a page
 * is read from, and _PAGE_DIRTY when it's written to.
 *
 * But Avi Kivity pointed out that most Operating Systems (Linux included) set
 * these bits on PTEs immediately anyway.  This is done to save the CPU from
 * having to update them, but it helps us the same way: if they set
 * _PAGE_ACCESSED then we can put a read-only PTE entry in immediately, and if
 * they set _PAGE_DIRTY then we can put a writable PTE entry in immediately.
 */
static void do_set_pte(struct lguest *lg, int idx,
                   unsigned long vaddr, pte_t gpte)
{
      /* Look up the matching shadow page directory entry. */
      pgd_t *spgd = spgd_addr(lg, idx, vaddr);

      /* If the top level isn't present, there's no entry to update. */
      if (pgd_flags(*spgd) & _PAGE_PRESENT) {
            /* Otherwise, we start by releasing the existing entry. */
            pte_t *spte = spte_addr(lg, *spgd, vaddr);
            release_pte(*spte);

            /* If they're setting this entry as dirty or accessed, we might
             * as well put that entry they've given us in now.  This shaves
             * 10% off a copy-on-write micro-benchmark. */
            if (pte_flags(gpte) & (_PAGE_DIRTY | _PAGE_ACCESSED)) {
                  check_gpte(lg, gpte);
                  *spte = gpte_to_spte(lg, gpte,
                                   pte_flags(gpte) & _PAGE_DIRTY);
            } else
                  /* Otherwise kill it and we can demand_page() it in
                   * later. */
                  *spte = __pte(0);
      }
}

/*H:410 Updating a PTE entry is a little trickier.
 *
 * We keep track of several different page tables (the Guest uses one for each
 * process, so it makes sense to cache at least a few).  Each of these have
 * identical kernel parts: ie. every mapping above PAGE_OFFSET is the same for
 * all processes.  So when the page table above that address changes, we update
 * all the page tables, not just the current one.  This is rare.
 *
 * The benefit is that when we have to track a new page table, we can copy keep
 * all the kernel mappings.  This speeds up context switch immensely. */
void guest_set_pte(struct lguest *lg,
               unsigned long gpgdir, unsigned long vaddr, pte_t gpte)
{
      /* Kernel mappings must be changed on all top levels.  Slow, but
       * doesn't happen often. */
      if (vaddr >= lg->kernel_address) {
            unsigned int i;
            for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(lg->pgdirs); i++)
                  if (lg->pgdirs[i].pgdir)
                        do_set_pte(lg, i, vaddr, gpte);
      } else {
            /* Is this page table one we have a shadow for? */
            int pgdir = find_pgdir(lg, gpgdir);
            if (pgdir != ARRAY_SIZE(lg->pgdirs))
                  /* If so, do the update. */
                  do_set_pte(lg, pgdir, vaddr, gpte);
      }
}

/*H:400
 * (iii) Setting up a page table entry when the Guest tells us one has changed.
 *
 * Just like we did in interrupts_and_traps.c, it makes sense for us to deal
 * with the other side of page tables while we're here: what happens when the
 * Guest asks for a page table to be updated?
 *
 * We already saw that demand_page() will fill in the shadow page tables when
 * needed, so we can simply remove shadow page table entries whenever the Guest
 * tells us they've changed.  When the Guest tries to use the new entry it will
 * fault and demand_page() will fix it up.
 *
 * So with that in mind here's our code to to update a (top-level) PGD entry:
 */
void guest_set_pmd(struct lguest *lg, unsigned long gpgdir, u32 idx)
{
      int pgdir;

      /* The kernel seems to try to initialize this early on: we ignore its
       * attempts to map over the Switcher. */
      if (idx >= SWITCHER_PGD_INDEX)
            return;

      /* If they're talking about a page table we have a shadow for... */
      pgdir = find_pgdir(lg, gpgdir);
      if (pgdir < ARRAY_SIZE(lg->pgdirs))
            /* ... throw it away. */
            release_pgd(lg, lg->pgdirs[pgdir].pgdir + idx);
}

/*H:500 (vii) Setting up the page tables initially.
 *
 * When a Guest is first created, the Launcher tells us where the toplevel of
 * its first page table is.  We set some things up here: */
int init_guest_pagetable(struct lguest *lg, unsigned long pgtable)
{
      /* We start on the first shadow page table, and give it a blank PGD
       * page. */
      lg->pgdidx = 0;
      lg->pgdirs[lg->pgdidx].gpgdir = pgtable;
      lg->pgdirs[lg->pgdidx].pgdir = (pgd_t*)get_zeroed_page(GFP_KERNEL);
      if (!lg->pgdirs[lg->pgdidx].pgdir)
            return -ENOMEM;
      return 0;
}

/* When the Guest calls LHCALL_LGUEST_INIT we do more setup. */
void page_table_guest_data_init(struct lguest *lg)
{
      /* We get the kernel address: above this is all kernel memory. */
      if (get_user(lg->kernel_address, &lg->lguest_data->kernel_address)
          /* We tell the Guest that it can't use the top 4MB of virtual
           * addresses used by the Switcher. */
          || put_user(4U*1024*1024, &lg->lguest_data->reserve_mem)
          || put_user(lg->pgdirs[lg->pgdidx].gpgdir,&lg->lguest_data->pgdir))
            kill_guest(lg, "bad guest page %p", lg->lguest_data);

      /* In flush_user_mappings() we loop from 0 to
       * "pgd_index(lg->kernel_address)".  This assumes it won't hit the
       * Switcher mappings, so check that now. */
      if (pgd_index(lg->kernel_address) >= SWITCHER_PGD_INDEX)
            kill_guest(lg, "bad kernel address %#lx", lg->kernel_address);
}

/* When a Guest dies, our cleanup is fairly simple. */
void free_guest_pagetable(struct lguest *lg)
{
      unsigned int i;

      /* Throw away all page table pages. */
      release_all_pagetables(lg);
      /* Now free the top levels: free_page() can handle 0 just fine. */
      for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(lg->pgdirs); i++)
            free_page((long)lg->pgdirs[i].pgdir);
}

/*H:480 (vi) Mapping the Switcher when the Guest is about to run.
 *
 * The Switcher and the two pages for this CPU need to be visible in the
 * Guest (and not the pages for other CPUs).  We have the appropriate PTE pages
 * for each CPU already set up, we just need to hook them in now we know which
 * Guest is about to run on this CPU. */
void map_switcher_in_guest(struct lguest *lg, struct lguest_pages *pages)
{
      pte_t *switcher_pte_page = __get_cpu_var(switcher_pte_pages);
      pgd_t switcher_pgd;
      pte_t regs_pte;

      /* Make the last PGD entry for this Guest point to the Switcher's PTE
       * page for this CPU (with appropriate flags). */
      switcher_pgd = __pgd(__pa(switcher_pte_page) | _PAGE_KERNEL);

      lg->pgdirs[lg->pgdidx].pgdir[SWITCHER_PGD_INDEX] = switcher_pgd;

      /* We also change the Switcher PTE page.  When we're running the Guest,
       * we want the Guest's "regs" page to appear where the first Switcher
       * page for this CPU is.  This is an optimization: when the Switcher
       * saves the Guest registers, it saves them into the first page of this
       * CPU's "struct lguest_pages": if we make sure the Guest's register
       * page is already mapped there, we don't have to copy them out
       * again. */
      regs_pte = pfn_pte (__pa(lg->regs_page) >> PAGE_SHIFT, __pgprot(_PAGE_KERNEL));
      switcher_pte_page[(unsigned long)pages/PAGE_SIZE%PTRS_PER_PTE] = regs_pte;
}
/*:*/

static void free_switcher_pte_pages(void)
{
      unsigned int i;

      for_each_possible_cpu(i)
            free_page((long)switcher_pte_page(i));
}

/*H:520 Setting up the Switcher PTE page for given CPU is fairly easy, given
 * the CPU number and the "struct page"s for the Switcher code itself.
 *
 * Currently the Switcher is less than a page long, so "pages" is always 1. */
static __init void populate_switcher_pte_page(unsigned int cpu,
                                    struct page *switcher_page[],
                                    unsigned int pages)
{
      unsigned int i;
      pte_t *pte = switcher_pte_page(cpu);

      /* The first entries are easy: they map the Switcher code. */
      for (i = 0; i < pages; i++) {
            pte[i] = mk_pte(switcher_page[i],
                        __pgprot(_PAGE_PRESENT|_PAGE_ACCESSED));
      }

      /* The only other thing we map is this CPU's pair of pages. */
      i = pages + cpu*2;

      /* First page (Guest registers) is writable from the Guest */
      pte[i] = pfn_pte(page_to_pfn(switcher_page[i]),
                   __pgprot(_PAGE_PRESENT|_PAGE_ACCESSED|_PAGE_RW));

      /* The second page contains the "struct lguest_ro_state", and is
       * read-only. */
      pte[i+1] = pfn_pte(page_to_pfn(switcher_page[i+1]),
                     __pgprot(_PAGE_PRESENT|_PAGE_ACCESSED));
}

/* We've made it through the page table code.  Perhaps our tired brains are
 * still processing the details, or perhaps we're simply glad it's over.
 *
 * If nothing else, note that all this complexity in juggling shadow page
 * tables in sync with the Guest's page tables is for one reason: for most
 * Guests this page table dance determines how bad performance will be.  This
 * is why Xen uses exotic direct Guest pagetable manipulation, and why both
 * Intel and AMD have implemented shadow page table support directly into
 * hardware.
 *
 * There is just one file remaining in the Host. */

/*H:510 At boot or module load time, init_pagetables() allocates and populates
 * the Switcher PTE page for each CPU. */
__init int init_pagetables(struct page **switcher_page, unsigned int pages)
{
      unsigned int i;

      for_each_possible_cpu(i) {
            switcher_pte_page(i) = (pte_t *)get_zeroed_page(GFP_KERNEL);
            if (!switcher_pte_page(i)) {
                  free_switcher_pte_pages();
                  return -ENOMEM;
            }
            populate_switcher_pte_page(i, switcher_page, pages);
      }
      return 0;
}
/*:*/

/* Cleaning up simply involves freeing the PTE page for each CPU. */
void free_pagetables(void)
{
      free_switcher_pte_pages();
}

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